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Obituary

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Hosni Mubarak: 1928 - 2020
Hosni Mubarak, who died on Tuesday, never expected to be president. But when a very public assassination thrust the former bomber pilot into the job, he made it his mission never to give it up.

His story became Egypt’s story for the next 30 years until, finally, his people found they could write it themselves, in a 2011 Arab Spring revolution that consigned him to history.

An unremarked vice president to Anwar Sadat, he was a stopgap in the anxious days of 1981 after Sadat was gunned down beside him at a military parade. Few thought he would last.

Yet slowly, surviving attempts on his own life, he became “Pharaoh”, presiding over decades of stagnation and oppression and offering his people a choice: Mubarak or mayhem.

Many believed him, not just in Egypt. U.S. administrations showered him - and the biggest army in the Middle East - with billions of dollars in gratitude for his loyalty to Sadat’s Cold War switch of allegiance and peace with Israel.

But it was his struggles with the Islamists - who by killing Sadat handed power accidentally to a man who would spend 30 years suppressing them - which defined his politics.
HOSNI MUBARAK
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January 24, 1985
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak gives a speech at Cairo's Police Academy January 24, 1985. He defended...
Cairo, Egypt
Egyptian President Mubarak gives a speech at Cairo's Police Academy
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak gives a speech at Cairo's Police Academy January 24, 1985. He defended his country's human rights record and praised the role of security authorities in maintaining order. REUTERS/Stringer BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE
EGYPT LIBYA
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October 16, 1989
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (L) meets Libyan Leader Muammar Gaddafi at the Egyptian border city...
MERSA MATROUH, Egypt
Egyptian President Mubarak meets Libyan Leader Gaddafi at the Egyptian border city of Mersa Matrouh
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (L) meets Libyan Leader Muammar Gaddafi at the Egyptian border city of Mersa Matrouh October 16, 1989. REUTERS/Frederic Neema BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE
EGYPT MUBARAK
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January 28, 1988
U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak pose for photographers in the White...
Washington, UNITED STATES
U.S. President Reagan and Egyptian President Mubarak pose for photographers in the White House Oval Office...
U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak pose for photographers in the White House Oval Office January 28, 1988. Reuters/Stelios Varias BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE
MIDEAST
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September 27, 1995
U.S. President Bill Clinton (R), Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (L), Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak...
Washington, UNITED STATES
File picture of US President Clinton, Israeli PM Rabin, Egyptian President Mubarak, PLO Chairman Arafat...
U.S. President Bill Clinton (R), Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (L), Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (2nd, L) and Jordan's King Hussein all adjust their ties as PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat (far R) looks on in this September 28,1995 file picture. The leaders are preparing to exit the White House on the occasion of the signing of the Israeli - Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Palestinians will mark the first anniversary of Arafat's death on November 11, 2005. REUTERS/Handout
ROYALS
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March 11, 1995
Britain's Prince of Wales (R) talks with Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak before a dinner, 11 March. It...
Britain's Prince of Wales (R) talks with Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak before a dinner, 11 March. .....
Britain's Prince of Wales (R) talks with Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak before a dinner, 11 March. It was the Prince's first engagement on his five day official visit to Egypt
LIBYA GADDAFI
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January 19, 1993
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (L) accompanies Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi on a tour at the pyramids...
Giza, Egypt
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak accompanies Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi on a tour at the pyramids...
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (L) accompanies Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi on a tour at the pyramids of Giza January 19, 1993. Both leaders discussed the crisis in Iraq and the possible development of the situation there. Reuters/Aladin BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE
MUBARAK
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April 05, 1995
President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt speaks at a White House conference, April 5
President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt speaks at a White House conference, April 5..
President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt speaks at a White House conference, April 5
HOSNI MUBARAK
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April 24, 1986
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (C), flanked by his Defense Minister Field Marshall Abdel-Halim Abu...
Cairo, Egypt
Egyptian President Mubarak, flanked by his Defense Minister Field Marshall Ghazala and Chief of Staff...
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (C), flanked by his Defense Minister Field Marshall Abdel-Halim Abu Ghazala (L) and Chief of Staff Lieutenant General Ibrahim Orabi (R), visits the tomb of the Unknown Soldier April 24, 1986, the anniversary of Israel's final withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula in 1982. REUTERS/Khaled Abu Seif BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE
ARAFAT
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June 26, 1995
PLO Chairman Yassar Arafat (L) listens to details of the assassination attempt against Egyptian President...
PLO Chairman Yassar Arafat (L) listens to details of the assassination attempt against Egyptian Pres.....
PLO Chairman Yassar Arafat (L) listens to details of the assassination attempt against Egyptian President Hosni-Mubarak during the opening session of the 0AU summit taking place in Addis Ababa June 26
PALESTINIANS-ISRAEL/
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September 01, 2010
U.S. President Barack Obama (R) meets with Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak in the Oval Office of the...
Washington, UNITED STATES
US President Obama meets with Egypt's President Mubarak in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington...
U.S. President Barack Obama (R) meets with Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington September 1, 2010. REUTERS/Jason Reed (UNITED STATES - Tags: POLITICS IMAGES OF THE DAY)
LIBYA
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October 10, 2010
Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi (C) leans on the shoulders of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (centre...
multiple cities, Libya
Libyan leader al-Gaddafi leans on the shoulders of Egyptian President Mubarak and President of Yemen...
Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi (C) leans on the shoulders of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (centre R) and President of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh (centre L) as they laugh during a photocall before the second Afro-Arab Summit in Sirte October 10, 2010. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (LIBYA - Tags: POLITICS IMAGES OF THE DAY)
EGYPT/
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February 08, 2011
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a meeting with United Arab Emirates Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah...
Cairo, Egypt
Egypt's President Mubarak attends meeting with UAE Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed al-Nahayan...
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a meeting with United Arab Emirates Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed al-Nahayan at the presidential palace in Cairo February 8, 2011. Protesters called for a push on Tuesday to eject Mubarak from power after the government conceded little ground in talks with the opposition and tried to squeeze demonstrators out of central Cairo. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh (EGYPT - Tags: CIVIL UNREST POLITICS PROFILE)
EGYPT
RTR2GLHY
July 21, 2010
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a meeting with Turkish President Abdullah Gul at the presidential...
Cairo, Egypt
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a meeting with Turkish President Abdullah Gul at the presidential...
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a meeting with Turkish President Abdullah Gul at the presidential palace in Cairo July 21, 2010. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS)
EGYPT
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September 26, 1999
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and his wife Suzanne, flanked by Information Minister Safwat Sherif...
Cairo, Egypt - Arab Republic of
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and his wife Suzanne, flanked by Information Minister Safwat Sherif.....
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and his wife Suzanne, flanked by Information Minister Safwat Sherif (L) emerge from a polling booth after casting their ballots in a referendum to confirm Mubarak in office for a fourth six-year term. About 24 million Egyptian were eligible to vote in the poll, but with Mubarak the only candidate, the result was not in doubt.
**POOR QUALITY DOCUMENT**
RTR2CJ3
March 10, 1997
President Clinton and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (L) confer at a joint press conference at the...
UNITED STATES
CLINTON AND MUBARAK CONFER AT A PRESS CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON
President Clinton and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (L) confer at a joint press conference at the White House March 10. Clinton said he and Mubarak had agreed to seek ways to try to revive the Syrian-Israeli track of the Middle East peace process.

MIDEAST USA
USA/
RTR26TFO
August 17, 2009
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton meets with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at a hotel in Washington...
Washington, UNITED STATES
Hillary Clinton meets with Hosni Mubarak in Washington
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton meets with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at a hotel in Washington August 17, 2009. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque (UNITED STATES POLITICS)
PALESTINIANS-ISRAEL/EGYPT-SUMMIT
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January 18, 2009
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak reacts during a news conference in Sharm el-Sheikh January 18, 2009....
Cairo, Egypt
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak reacts during a news conference in Sharm el-Sheikh
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak reacts during a news conference in Sharm el-Sheikh January 18, 2009. The leaders of Britain, the Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Germany, Jordan, Spain and Turkey, along with U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, are meeting in the resort of Sharm el-Sheikh to coordinate policy on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict after three weeks of fighting in and around Gaza. REUTERS/Amr Dalsh (EGYPT)
EGYPT
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October 19, 2010
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a meeting with South Africa's President Jacob Zuma at the presidential...
Cairo, Egypt
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a meeting with South Africa's President Jacob Zuma at the presidential...
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a meeting with South Africa's President Jacob Zuma at the presidential palace in Cairo October 19, 2010. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS)
PALESTINIANS-ISRAEL/
RTR2HTDS
September 01, 2010
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a Middle East peace talks event in the East Room at the White...
Washington, UNITED STATES
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a Middle East peace talks event in the East Room at the White...
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends a Middle East peace talks event in the East Room at the White House in Washington September 1, 2010. REUTERS/Jason Reed (UNITED STATES - Tags: POLITICS)
EGYPT/
RTX7JIX
July 01, 2008
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends the African Union summit in the Egyptian resort of Sharm el-Sheikh...
Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends the African Union summit in the Egyptian resort of Sharm el-Sheikh...
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak attends the African Union summit in the Egyptian resort of Sharm el-Sheikh July 1, 2008. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT)
GERMANY/
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April 23, 2008
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak (L) and German Chancellor Angela Merkel react as they address a news...
Berlin, Germany
Egypt's President Mubarak and German Chancellor Merkel react as they address a news conference following...
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak (L) and German Chancellor Angela Merkel react as they address a news conference following their talks at the chancellery in Berlin, April 23, 2008. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch (GERMANY)
EGYPT
RTXA5AJ
November 01, 2008
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak salutes his supporters during the opening session of the annual conference...
Cairo, Egypt
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak salutes his supporters during the opening session of the annual conference...
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak salutes his supporters during the opening session of the annual conference of the National Democratic Party (NDP) in Cairo November 1, 2008. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
ECONOMY FORUM
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May 19, 2006
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak speaks during the opening ceremony of the World Economic Forum on the...
Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt
Egyptian President Mubarak speaks during opening ceremony of World Economic Forum in Sharm El Sheikh
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak speaks during the opening ceremony of the World Economic Forum on the Middle East in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, May 20, 2006. REUTERS/Goran Tomasevic
GERMANY
RTRIIS9
February 18, 2003
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak is accompanied by his wife Suzanne (L)
upon his arrival at Berlin's...
Berlin, Germany
EGYPT'S PRESIDENT MUBARAK UPON HIS ARRIVAL AT BERLIN TEGEL AIRPORT.
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak is accompanied by his wife Suzanne (L)
upon his arrival at Berlin's Tegel airport February 18, 2003. Mubarak
is on an official two-day visit to Germany and will meet German
Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder on Wednesday. REUTERS/Arnd Wiegmann

AKW/jm
EGYPT USA
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April 02, 2001
U.S. President George W. Bush (L) walks with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (R) from the Oval Office...
Washington, USA
BUSH WALKS WITH EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT MUBARAK FROM OVAL OFFICE.
U.S. President George W. Bush (L) walks with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (R) from the Oval Office of the White House to the official residence, April 2, 2001. During a private luncheon, Bush and Mubarak were expected to discuss the ongoing conflict in the Middle East.

WM/ME
EGYPT
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October 02, 2000
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (R) and his Syrian counterpart Bashar al-Assad respond to questions...
Cairo, Egypt
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (R) and his Syrian counterpart Bashar al-Assad respond to questions.....
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (R) and his Syrian counterpart Bashar al-Assad respond to questions during a news conference in Cairo October 2, 2000. Mubarak urged the Arabs to hold a long delayed summit quickly to discuss the Arab-Israeli conflict after at least 30 people were killed in five days of bloody clashes between Palestinians and Israeli soldiers.
MIDEAST PERES ARAFAT
RTROY8Q
November 02, 2001
Palestinian President Yasser Arafat (L) Egyptian President Hosni
Mubarak (2nd L) Spanish Prime Minister...
Formentor, Spain
ARAFAT, MUBARAK, AZNAR AND PERES LAUGH TOGETHER AT FORMENTOR MEETING IN
MAJORCA.
Palestinian President Yasser Arafat (L) Egyptian President Hosni
Mubarak (2nd L) Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar (2nd R) and
Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres (R) laugh during the
Euro-Mediterranean forum in the resort of Formentor on the Spanish
island of Majorca November 2, 2001. The forum, focusing on the Middle
East crisis, is the first meeting for Peres and Arafat since they
reaffirmed a ceasefire deal in late September. REUTERS/Dani Cardona

AC/AA
EGYPT-MUBARAK/TRIAL
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September 27, 2014
Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak lies on a stretcher while being transported ahead of his trial...
Cairo, Egypt
Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak lies on a stretcher while being transported ahead of his trial...
Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak lies on a stretcher while being transported ahead of his trial in Cairo September 27, 2014. Mubarak, 86, was sentenced to life in prison in 2012 for complicity in the deaths of demonstrators and the breakdown of law and order during the 18-day revolt that ended his 30-year presidency, but an appeals court subsequently ordered a retrial. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS CRIME LAW)
EGYPT-MUBARAK/
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May 21, 2014
Egypt's ousted President Hosni Mubarak sits next to his son Gamal (L) inside a dock at the police academy...
Cairo, Egypt
Egypt's ousted President Hosni Mubarak sits next to his son Gamal inside a dock at the police academy...
Egypt's ousted President Hosni Mubarak sits next to his son Gamal (L) inside a dock at the police academy on the outskirts of Cairo May 21, 2014. An Egyptian court on Wednesday sentenced Hosni Mubarak to three years in prison on charges of stealing public funds. His sons were sentenced to four years in jail on the same charges.
REUTERS/Stringer (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST CRIME LAW TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY)
EGYPT-MUBARAK/
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April 13, 2013
Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak waves to his supporters inside a cage in a courtroom at the police...
Cairo, Egypt
Former Egyptian President Mubarak waves inside a cage in a courtroom at the police academy in Cairo
Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak waves to his supporters inside a cage in a courtroom at the police academy in Cairo April 13, 2013. The retrial of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was aborted on Saturday when the presiding judge withdrew from the case and referred it to another court, causing an indefinite delay that sparked anger in the courtroom. REUTERS/Stringer (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS CRIME LAW)
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